Summer School on Internet Path Transparency Measurements

On June the 11th the Electronics Research Group hosted the MAMI Summer
School on Internet Path Transparency Measurements in Aberdeen, Scotland.
This consisted of a few hands-on workshops, with participation
both on-site and remote via video conference.

The summer school started with Korian and Justin demonstrating Tracebox
through a variety of topologies. The participants then worked on their
own trying to uncover middleboxes and hidden topologies using a variety
of tools, including tracebox and paris-traceroute.

To follow, the history and development of PATHspider were presented by
Iain Learmonth, one of the creators of PATHspider. Iain also delivered
an interactive Scapy tutorial followed by teaching students how to use
Scapy to create PATHspider plugins using the Evil Bit as an example.
The participants ran plugins against a list of real targets and produced

To finish off, Brian Trammel delivered a presentation on the PTO (Path
Transparency Observatory), and helped the participants upload to it the
results they collected in the previous session. The participants then
learned how to query the PTO in order to examine the data they just
uploaded. In an interesting twist of events, the measurements found ECN
manipulation by a middlebox in the eduroam network in Aberdeen – mission

If you missed the summer school, all slides and materials can be found

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2. Edition of the MAMI/MONROE workshop on Mobile Network Measuremnt (MNM’18)

On June 25, we held another edition of the Mobile Network Measuremnt (MNM’18) workshop together with the MONROE project. As last year the workshop was co-located with the Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference (TMA 2018) which was held this year in Vienna. We started the day with a keynote from Varun Singh, the CEO of – a start-up from Helsinki that collects and analyses WebRTC measurements. While he was giving us some interesting insights in the technical work and challenges of monitoring real-time communications, his elaborations about the challenges and problems as a young start-up were as least as exciting!

The technical agenda of the workshop were split between 6 talks into two sessions, basically between the layers: first focusing on Network QoS and (mobile) Coverage, and then Multipath and Application Performance (in mobile networks). Further Özgü Alay, the co-ordinator of the MONROE project, and Iain Learmonth, the main maintainer of PATHSPider, gave an introduction on the use of the MONROE platform and mobile measurements using PATHspider.

One more important thing to mention: We did print MAMI labelled M&M’s for the MNM workshop… of course! I’d say those where a big success but we gladly have still some left. So if you meet us the next time at some event (e.g. come to our SIGCOMM tutorial on Repeatability and Comparability in Measurement (RCM) where we introduce tracebox, PATHspider, and the PTO), chances are good to get some as well!

Of course we also stayed for the rest of the TMA meeting in Vienna! Beside our two paper on Exploring usable Path MTU in the Internet and Tracing Internet Path Transparency, there where a lot of great talks and keynotes, including an expert summit on Tuesday of the week. After all a big thanks to the organizors for the great meeting as well as great social events (every night of the entire week)!

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IETF101 in London, March 17-23

Last month, the IETF returned to the Hilton Metropole near Paddington Station in London for its 101st meeting.

Hello, London!

While it is always nice to go to an IETF meeting in Europe (and therefore suffer less from jet-lag), in this specific hotel the challenge is to find your way around and actually make it to your meeting in time. The meeting room are distributed over three “wings” in the first as well as ground floors as well as in the upper third and “lower third level” (i.e., the sub-basement, next to the Underground), with a less than optimal elevator configuration:

However, the meeting itself was very productive, despite the labyrinth! As is now customary, the week started early on Saturday and Sunday already with the Hackathon where MAMI was present with two projects and a total of 6 people working on Scalable, Privacy-preserving In-Network Measurement (i.e., the QUIC Latency Spin Bit) and a testbed for 1-bit optimisations for the mobile access network based on the Loss-Latency tradeoff.

Monday, we mainly focused on transport topics with a presentation of the soon-to-be-finished AccECN TCP extension in tcpm, an interesting discussion about framing in QUIC (i.e. whether or not to use DTLS as QUIC’s wire image), and a general discussion about TCP encapsulation in tsvarea.

On Tuesday both of the research groups that have grown out of the MAMI project met: theMeasurement and Analysis for Protocols (MAP) and the proposed Path Aware Networking (PAN) research groups. MAPRG’s two and a half hour slot contained many interesting presentations, covering both papers from, e.g., IMC as well as “previews” of work presented at PAM 2018 the following week in Berlin.

PANRG met for the third time as a proposed RG, which means that the process of actually forming the group officially is underway now. The meeting had a productive discussion and a lot of positive feedback, indicating that there is interest in continuing work in the group. There seem to be two broad areas of research the group will tackle going forward: exploring how to add “path awareness” to the Internet architecture (in the vein of the PLUS work pursued by the MAMI project), and continuing work on various not-yet-ready-for-standardization techniques to use path information at the transport layer.

The MAMI project, together with the H2020 NEAT project and engineers and researchers from Apple, the University of Glasgow, and TU Berlin, proposed a new architecture for the Transport Services working group, and an abstract interface for that architecture based in large part on MAMI’s Post Sockets and flexible transport layer work. These drafts were adopted by the TAPS working group, and will form the basis of a new standard abstract API for the transport layer.

The new TAPS cabal, working out the details after the adoption of the new architecture drafts. (Thanks Colin Perkins for the photo!)

MAMI was also busy in TLS, presenting a proposal to extend the DTLS header and discussing the nuances of the DTLS connection Id encoding, and in ACME where we asked for WGLC of the STAR document.

The “main event” for the project, so to say, took place on Thursday morning with a discussion of the QUIC Spin Bit, a facility for supporting passive round-trip time measurement despite the encryption of the QUIC header. This discussion took the majority of a two and a half hour session, and was quite lively: for the first time in our experience at an IETF meeting, the microphones at an IETF meeting had to be moved to keep the line from running out the door.

“How many engineers does it take to spin one bit?”

While the working group still could not come to consensus to add the spin bit directly to the protocol at this time, the outcome was a good one for the project (and for the concept of explicit measurability and in our opinion, for the Internet at large): one bit has been reserved for experimentation with the spin bit, with a directive to reserve a further two for experimentation with additional signaling such as the Valid Edge Counter (VEC) presented at the meeting, with a draft to be published under working group change control for coordinating larger-scale experimentation.

All in all, it was a great week in London, and we’re already looking forward to July’s IETF 102 meeting in Montreal!

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PATHspider has exciting new features in release 2.0.0

PATHspider is a free-software extensible path transparency measurement tool that performs path transparency measurements using either real network stacks or packet forging. A new major version, 2.0.0, has just been released and is packed with new features to expand the range of measurement tasks it can perform.

For the evolution of the Internet’s protocol stack, it is important to know which network impairments exist and potentially need to be worked around. PATHspider performs A/B testing between two different protocols or different protocol extensions to perform controlled experiments of protocol-dependent connectivity problems as well as differential treatment.

One new feature that can simplify the creation of tests for path transparency to new protocols in development is the inclusion of a packet forging framework, Scapy (thanks to Ēriks Dobelis for his work on porting Scapy to Python 3, without which this would not have been possible).

This means that even before the specification for a new protocol or extension is written, before any code exists, you can already be testing for possible issues. This feature was already used to explore the possibilities for a new DiffServ codepoint for lower effort traffic and reported on at an IRTF MAPRG meeting.

The API for developing plugins for new measurements has also been greatly simplified. A lot of effort has gone into refactoring large chunks of the codebase to remove code duplication in plugins and ensure plugin authors only have to write the code that they need to.

When using real network stacks, connection helpers are now provided for HTTP and DNS using pycurl and dnslib. This greatly simplifies the creation of plugins that are toggling kernel options or iptables rules as you now only need to write the function to perform the system-wide configuration and the traffic generation is handled for you.

Analysis of data is now also simplified as PATHspider no longer outputs individual flows but instead waits for all the flows to be available and performs an automated analysis to generate conditions that apply to a path, for example whether or not the use of a feature has broken connectivity. It will also determine your public IP address if behind a NAT, and look up the ASN of the vantage point and include these in the computed network path in the output.

A completely new feature in PATHspider allows the use of the built-in flow meter without actively generating any traffic. This can be used to examine another device that is generating traffic or to examine traffic on a link aggregating many devices to discover how clients behave and what typical Internet traffic looks like with regard to the protocol features in use.

PATHspider includes comprehensive documentation to help you get started. If you have Vagrant installed, you can have a working PATHspider environment as simply as “vagrant up”. Other installation methods are described in the documentation.

In the near future, there will be more work on the test suites that allow you to verify the installation of PATHspider is working correctly and the addition of a benchmarking command to optimise the speed at which PATHspider is running on a particular machine to balance speed with dropped packets. There will also be more extensive documentation on packaging your plugins so that they can be more easily shared other researchers and deployed to remote measurement vantage points.

If you have any ideas for interesting plugins, you could file a GitHub issue or send a tweet to @iainlearmonth. If it sounds interesting, it may make it into the next release. If you’d like to follow PATHspider development, you can also join #pathspider on

In order to complete the inclusion of pycurl for traffic generation, it was necessary to add support to pycurl for a couple of additional features (thanks to Oleg Pudeyev for reviewing and merging those changes). Unfortunately these changes were only recently released and so it may be necessary to install pycurl from source. If using the Vagrantfile this will be done for you, on a Debian system the following will get you going:

apt-get install python3-libtrace python3-sphinx python3-straight.plugin python3-setuptools pylint3 python3-pep8 python3-pyroute2 python3-pip unzip python3-nose python3-stem
apt-get build-dep python3-pycurl
pip3 install 'pycurl>='
pip3 install 'pathspider>=2.0.0'
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IETF 100

Good morning, Singapore!

A few of us from the MAMI project started arriving in Singapore on Friday, in order to participate in the hackathon, which has become an IETF tradition. A few hours later we were at our tables, Thomas Fossati and James Bulmer working on a STAR Requests implementation, and Brian Trammell sitting with the QUIC and TLS tables to work on passive measurability of the protocol with mokumkuoren. We had a day and a half of fun coding, patching specs, improving test coverage, and generally hacking about.  Pretty good progress indeed, a few nice chats with old and new friends and great food and beers.  Thank you hackathon organisers!

Test coverage improved by the end of the hackathon…

The next step for STAR is to get the e2e demo up & running on our dear Blue Box with a miniaturised but fully functional CDN talking to an ACME STAR CA in time for IETF 101 in London in March.

Back to the hotel we posted acme-star-01, since we had missed the pre-IETF cutoff date and we needed people to get a chance to glance through the changes which had been quite abundant. The updated draft includes  an “implementation status” section (as per BCP205) documenting the work that Diego De Aguilar Cañellas has done on top of Boulder and Certbot (LetsEncrypt’s server and EFF’s client, respectively) to add the new STAR flow in ACME.

Then Monday arrived, and the meeting started. Diego went to TRANS to talk about ACME STAR (slides) and discuss the cost that an increase in log ingestion of one or two orders of magnitude poses on the Certificate Transparency infrastructure. Based on the observation that all STARs belonging to the same ACME order are basically equivalent modulo their validity dates and serial number, we also prepared and presented a napkin design that uses a new SCT type to address the scale problem. The discussion (youtube link) was, as often happens in the IETF, very instructive but inconclusive. We went away without a clear answer whether this is going to cause troubles or not.  The reactions up to this point are scattered all over the spectrum, ranging from “omg, this will melt the world” to “nah, the log can cope” to “meh, future problems”.

Monday’s session of the Measurement and Analysis of Protocols research group (MAPRG), co-chaired by Mirja Kühlewind, included a presentation by Brian of Principles for Measurability in Protocol Design (slides). This paper articulates our vision for measurement as a first-class function of the protocol stack.

Another meeting of the not-very-secret Post Sockets cabal

Tuesday started off with the Transport Services (TAPS) WG, where discussion focused on whether the working group should take on work in defining abstract programming interfaces for applications atop a dynamic . Here, discussion focused on Post Sockets, a realization of MAMI’s flexible transport layer (FTL). We came to no conclusion, but will schedule a meeting in the margins of our upcoming plenary in Cambridge in January to further develop Post Sockets into an architecture for flexible transport services.

The QUIC mic line (©Stonehouse Photography)

The first session of QUIC was Tuesday afternoon. A slightly congested mic line and very robust discussion surrounded the wrap up of the design team for the “spin bit”, designed to provide explicit passive measurability of end-to-end latency in QUIC flows, replacing TCP timestamps for this purpose. While the design team itself was unable to come to consensus to add the spin but to the protocol (though it did conclude that passive latency measurement poses no known threat to privacy), there was a balance of support in the room for adding passive latency measurability to the protocol, and a sense that the spin bit is a good method for doing so. However, work to achieve consensus is ongoing; watch this space for future posts about our experiences with implementation and use of the spin bit.

Thursday was definitely a busy day.  In TLS we did the call for adoption for the connection identifier for (D)TLS.  That went really smooth and the draft has been adopted – pending confirmation on the mailing list, obviously.  The co-authors have slightly different opinions on a few key points, including implicit vs explicit signals and the protocol friendliness to troubleshooting (deja-vu?).  But we all agree this solves the big issues related to connection migration and NAT rebinding that we already discussed in a previous post and the important thing here is that the TLS working group reckons this is worth spending working group cycles on.

Thursday afternoon saw the second meeting of the Path Aware Networking research group (PANRG), and included presentations on path property dissemination and interfaces for path control (hello again, Post Sockets), as well as an examination of open questions in bringing path awareness to the Internet architecture. We see the general area of path-aware networking as being an unexpected legacy of the project.

Later, in the ACME session we presented the updates we’d been working on in the months following Prague.  The document is in good shape, the protocol flow should be stable and my impression is that once we complete the security and operational analysis, the document should be ready for last call. After ACME, we had another informal STAR-centred meeting organised by Yoav to talk about generic short-lived certificates that automatically renew which may or may not depend on the ACME ecosystem – for example, based on ANIMA, or on proprietary systems – and may or may not address the HTTPS use case and address instead IPsec, non-web uses of TLS & SSH in enterprise and datacentre-type environments.  The meeting was well attended with more than 20 people at the table (a couple of CDNs, middlebox vendors, web folks, mobile network operators, academia, other SDOs) all bringing their own experience and perspective on the issues related to certificate revocation (one of the core motivations to look into STAR) and the solution space.  The discussion was great – with use cases in NSF, vehicle-to-vehicle, SAN, IPsec, and of course the Web – though a tad too short: many had to run, including Diego and I to our traditional MAMI dinner 🙂  One core thing that was concluded is that the “short” in short-term is a very fluid concept and must be defined on a case by case basis.  In fact, the exact definition of “short” should match the time it takes to the revocation information (CRL and/or OCSP) to propagate to the relying parties.  We hope to continue the exchange on the SAAG list or maybe in an ad-hoc list.

Goodbye, Singapore!

With that, we bid farewell to Singapore! See you all at IETF 101 in London!

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Is Internet RTT reliable for geolocation?

Short, short answer: nope, don’t bother. While this is probably obvious to any of you with network engineering experience, we thought we’d use RIPE Atlas to have a look into this question anyway.

In the context of an ongoing conversation about the explicit exposure of RTT information to devices on path in the IETF standard version of the QUIC protocol, we’ve briefly looked into how much of a threat Internet-observable per-path RTT is to geoprivacy of one of the endpoints. It turns out that the old network operations rule of thumb that a millisecond of RTT is 100km long adds a whole lot of uncertainty — a fact which also confounded some recent work on RTT-based anycast detection by Cicalese et al. Only in cases where one is very, very lucky — microseconds lucky — in the placement of the vantage points from which RTT measurements are taken can one use RTT measurements for elimination-based geolocation.

Our full white paper — which is also an experiment in “runnable papers” using Jupyter notebooks — is available on GitHub.

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IETF99: QUIC, TAPS, PAN(P)RG, MAPRG, ACME, BANANA, IPPM, … a busy week in Prague!

Two weeks ago, 16-21 July 2017, the IETF returned to Prague, as it apparently does every few years now, and the MAMI project went with it.

Charles Bridge at night

Piet de Vaere presents new results with PATHspider at ANRW ’17

As with last summer’s IETF (96, in Berlin), our meeting started a day early with the ACM/IRTF Applied Networking Research Workshop (ANRW), with two MAMI papers on the program: Korian Edeline presented copycat, a differential TCP/UDP treatment tool; and Piet De Vaere presented our latest results with PATHspider on ECN, DCSP and TFO measurements. In addition, putting the “applied” in ANRW, discussions at the final panel may lead to efforts to do some simple standardization for data interchange formats for very simple measurements; watch this space for future announcements.

The IETF meeting proper kicked off on Monday morning with TCPM where most discussion was focused around TCP’s Explicit Congestion Nodification (ECN). The MAMI project is working on an extension for more accurate ECN feedback (AccECN) that can be used as input for future, more advantage congestion control schemes. With the ECN deployment efforts from Apple and hopefully ECN support by default in QUIC, this can provide an interesting new space for research and experimentation.

Also on Monday, Brian Trammell of MAMI partner ETH co-chaired a second BoF on bandwidth aggregation approaches for multiply connected networks (BANANA); the discussion was much more focused than that in Seoul, and we anticipate a decision as to whether a working group will be formed soon.

Work on Post Sockets-related drafts continued at the TAPS working group meeting on Tuesday. Discussions in the working group focused on how to add security to the model of transport services worked out in RFC 8095. It has also become clear that discussions about the details of transport policies (addressed in depth by our sister NEAT project) will be central to the usability of a flexible transport layer (FTL) as envisioned by the MAMI project, and we will work together with the TAPS working group to define common policy models for future APIs. The authors of the Post Sockets draft also met after the WG meeting to discuss next steps with the document and bringing it up to date with our recently published paper. In addition, the MAMI project started new work in operation with Apple on security features in the transport stack.

The most important track at the IETF is the hallway track: meeting in the atrium about Post Sockets

Going on, the IPPM working group decided on Wednesday to attempt to change its charter to allow it to work, among other things, on the OAM work discussed in Chicago, which, as we noted, addresses some of the goals of MAMI MCP.

Wednesday afternoon marked the first meeting of the Path Aware Networking (PAN) proposed Research Group, co-chaired by Brian Trammell of MAMI partner ETH and Jen Linkova, a Google network engineer. PAN expands the question addressed by the MAMI project somewhat: what can we do with network architectures, protocols, and applications, when the endpoints are made explicitly aware of the paths between them and their properties? The creation of an IRTF research group as a venue to have these discussions will, we believe, be a major unanticipated outcome of the MAMI project, so we’ll go into more depth about PAN in a future blog post.

Thursday morning started with the usual MAPRG session chaired by Mirja Kühlewind, the MAMI project coordinator. Other than the last time, there was no Call for Contributions as the list of proposed presentation was just growing continuously. Check out the agenda for various talks on IPv6, DNS hijacking, or latency measurements. Or watch the recording. Please also consider to announce your measurement work in the maprg mailing list or use the mailing to check out if someone has that to share that might help your research work!

While the MAMI project was initially focused on the definition of a common wire image for encrypted transport protocols, it has become clear that QUIC is the currently-important such protocol under standardization in the IETF, so we focus our efforts on applying the principles we work out in the project to QUIC, as well. Thursday’s QUIC session was largely focused on discussion of the addition of explicit round-trip-time measurability to the protocol. For such a basic observable metric as latency, this discussion was surprisingly contentious, showing that emotions continue to run high in the IETF on the question of support for network management functions. On this particular question, we anticipate closure at the next IETF meeting in Singapore in November; watch this space for a future blog post on the details of the question.

While you might already got the impression that the meeting was packed, there was  more stuff to report also on Friday. Beside a second QUIC meeting where among other things ECN support in QUIC was discussed, there was the ACME session. Work on certificate delegation that was adopted by the working group at the last interim was presented there. Further it should be noted that the MAMI project was also presented at the IETF hackathon on Sunday, with ACME STAR and LoLa.

MAMI partners and advisors at a project lunch in Prague

It was, as always, an interesting, enlightening, and exhausting week. We’ll see the IETF again in November in Singapore, and we look forward to the IETF’s return to Prague in 2019.

Project coordinator Mirja Kühlewind waves goodbye to IETF99 in Prague.

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Joint MAMI/MONROE workshop on Mobile Network Measurements (MNM’17) held on June 20 in Dublin

On June 20, we had a joint workshop with the EU-H2020 MONROE project on Mobile Network Measurements (MNM). The workshop was held in conjunction with TMA Conference 2017 in Dublin/Maynooth which was a great fit for this workshop and our project given the strong focus on measurements we have in WP1. For us the goal of the workshop was two-fold: of course it’s a good opportunity to disseminate the goals and results of our two projects but it was also a great chance to meet up with people that use or plan to use the MONROE testbed as well as PATHspider which is available on MONROE and build a focused community  around this group of people.

The workshop received 16 paper contributions, and 10 6-page papers were selected by the TPC, consisting of participants from both projects as well as MAMI EAB members, for presentation at the workshop. At this point again a big thanks to all TPC members, providing reviews within an incredibly short period of only two weeks!

The workshop was organized in three technical sessions focusing on network performance in mobile networks (like congestion forecasting or available bandwidth estimation) as well as application performance (e.g. Video QoE) over a mobile network and middlebox mangling in mobile networks (such as DCSP rewrites and NAT). The technical session where supplemented by a keynote on “From packets to knowledge: applying data science approaches to traffic measurement” held by Marco Mellia, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.

With a total of 18 registered participants, and a couple of visitors from the parallel workshops, the workshop provided lively discussion and a good opportunity to make people aware of MAMI’s measurement efforts, raising interest in a focused community of MONROE users as well as other researchers working on Internet measurements in academia and industry. And we are already discussing to have another workshop next year again!

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QUIC Interim WG Meeting, Paris, June 6-8

The QUIC transport protocol, developed by Google and currently under standardization in the IETF, is of central interest to our project. QUIC is an encrypted transport protocol encapsulated in UDP, as those we aim to support with our MCP; indeed, our pilot MCP implementation targets QUIC as its overlying transport. So we are naturally very interested in QUIC’s development, and MAMI partners ETH (Mirja Kühlewind and Brian Trammell, in person) and UoA (Gorry Fairhurst, remotely) attended an interim meeting of the QUIC WG last week in Paris.

The meeting focused on laying out the features of a draft version of the protocol for the first interop test. As the interface between QUIC and TLS is entirely new and somewhat complex, interoperability will focus on connection establishment with cryptographic handshaking. Also on the agenda were discussions about the measurability of QUIC: how much information should QUIC explicitly radiate about its operation toward devices on path in order to support measurement, similar as questions we discuss for MCP. Here discussion is ongoing, but it seems that consensus on a set of explicit mechanisms for limited measurement and operations task is closer than it has been.

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Chasing the Big NAT across Europe and the U.S. with NAT Revelio

In light of the IPv4 address scarcity problem, one approach towards prolonging the life of current IPv4 address allocations is to deploy Carrier Grade NATs (CGNs), where Internet Service Providers (ISPs) share the same public IPv4 address across multiple end users.  CGNs may bring a number of challenges for end users, service providers, content providers and government authorities. For example, there is some evidence that CGNs can cause dropped services in peer-to-peer applications, and lead to low performance of file transfer and video streaming sessions. Despite all this, CGNs offer an immediate relief to the IPv4 address scarcity problem, so it is likely that their popularity will increase over time.

Given the potentially disruptive impact of what seems a likely future scenario, it behooves policymakers, ISPs and Internet users to monitor the extent of CGN deployment in the Internet. But like many aspects of Internet structure, systematic measurement and monitoring of CGN deployment in the wide area is challenging. The MAMI project through Simula Research Laboratory, together with external collaborators at University Carlos III of Madrid and CAIDA/UCSD worked towards addressing this challenge. We built and perfected NAT Revelio, a tool that enables us to actively determine from within residential networks the type of upstream network address translation, namely NAT at the home gateway (customer-grade NAT) or NAT in the ISP (Carrier Grade NAT). Check our talk at PAM 2016 for an overview of how Revelio works.

We deployed Revelio on two large-scale hardware-based measurement platforms – RIPE Atlas in Europe and the FCC Measuring Broadband America (FCC-MBA) in the U.S. – with a total of 5,121 vantage points in over 60 ISPs. The FCC-MBA deployment consisted of 2,477 home routers operated by SamKnows in 21 large residential broadband Internet access service providers in the U.S. We also executed the Revelio tests from 2,644 Atlas probes in 43 ISPs mainly active in Europe. We ran the measurement campaign in two phases (May 2016 and August 2016) on both platforms. Based on the experimental results from the first phase (May 2016), we enhanced the test suite to account for a wide diversity of home network topologies and various access technologies. In the second phase of the measurement campaign (August 2016) we deployed the evolved Revelio suite to investigate the state of CGN deployment in broadband networks.

Our results show that 10% (6 out of 64) of the ISPs we tested have some form of CGN deployment. In particular, one ISP has a large-scale deployment where Revelio detected upstream CGN deployment from all 76 vantage points in that ISP. In the other 5 ISPs we observed evidence of a localized deployment limited to a subset of customers. We verified our results with representatives of the ISPs to validate our positive and negative inferences at the IP level. We confirmed the results for 4 of the 6 positive ISPs by personal communications with ISP representatives. The combination of the FCC-MBA and RIPE Atlas study represents (to the best of our knowledge) the largest active measurement study to date with confirmed CGN deployments in broadband networks at the IP-level granularity.

For a more in-depth analysis of our measurements please visit the openly available technical report.

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